Addressing the Spectrum of Human Conflict in K-12 Schools

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Emotional and Physical Violence


The bars on the left and right reference the risk and protective factors described by the Center For Disease Control (

Then, in the center, the four universal triggers of violence are listed:

1. Personal Stress (such as relationship difficulties, financial problems, work demands, physical threats, job insecurity), which heightens the risk of conflict.

2. Indignity (treating others badly with insults, put-downs and humiliation), which can provoke retaliation.

3. Bystander Inaction (by peers or persons of authority), which leaves victims of violence to fend for themselves.

4. Victim Mindset (perceived as less-than by others), which can result in vulnerability to becoming the target of violence by bullies.




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